Some pcs have a very difficult time in auditing due solely to can (electrode) outnesses.
Some auditors have heavy losses because they do not realize the troubles that can come from electrodes and thus remedy them.
The TA must be between 2 and 3 for a correct F/N.
When the TA is reading falsely a pc can be butchered.
Example: Auditor talking the TA down. It gets to "3.1" by his meter. So he gets the pc to talk a bit more to get the TA between 2 and 3 and F/N. The TA suddenly rises to 3.8.
Pc and Auditor go desperate. What has happened is that the TA was a false read. It was really reading 2.9 and F/Ning but for reasons given below it read "3.1". Thus the auditor overran the F/N and by keeping on invalidated the release, pulled the pc's attention out of session and demanded more than the pc had to give.
Example: Auditor 2 way communicating with pc to get the TA up from "1.8". The TA suddenly sinks to 1.6, pc goes into apathy.
What happened was a missed F/N. For reasons covered below the TA at 1.8 was false and was really at 2.1 and F/Ning.
Example: Pc being asked for an earlier similar incident because TA is at "4.0". Pc can't get one, gets desperate, TA goes to 5.0.
For reasons given below the TA was at 3.0 but was reading falsely at "4.0".
Some cases get upset at the very idea of F/N when these mistakes are made.
More than one case has missed all his wins for a year because of a false TA.
So it is very important to know how a false TA comes about and how to avoid it.
A properly set up meter with cans (electrodes) fitted to a pc who is holding them properly is always correct.
However, totally false Tone Arm readings can exist and an auditor must know how these come about.
A meter can be improperly trimmed (not set at 2.0 with the trim knob) and can give a false TA position.
Further, when a meter is not left on a minute or two before trimming, it can drift in the session and give a slightly false TA.
The trim can be quietly checked in mid-session by snapping out the jack where the cord goes into the box and putting the TA on 2, seeing if the needle is now on Set. If not, the trim knob can be moved to adjust it. The jack is quietly slipped back in. All without distracting the pc.
A cadmium cell meter discharges very suddenly when it does go flat.
In mid-session the meter can run out of battery. The TA will cease to act well and may go very false.
The remedy is to keep a meter charged at least one hour for every 10 of auditing for 240 AC volt charging current, or 2 hours for every 10 of auditing on a 110 AC volt charging current.
A meter lasts much longer than this in practice but the above is very safe.
Before each session snap the knob over to Test. The needle should hit hard on the right side of the face. It can even bounce. This guarantees lots of charge in the battery and no chance of a meter going flat in session.
If the needle doesn't snap to the right hard or if it doesn't quite get there on Test, then that meter will go flat in mid-session and give false TA and no reads or TA on hot subjects.
A single hand electrode with two terminals separated by a rubber works. But it always gives a falsely high TA.
A Solo auditor who does not know this can get a release point and go half mad wondering why he is F/Ning at 4.0!
The answer is to make a "single hand" electrode out of two small cans (about 3¾ inches by 2 1/8 inches or 9½ cm by 5½ cm) (or even smaller for a very small-handed pc). Glue a thin circle of foam rubber solidly to the bottom of one can so it reaches out slightly around the bottom. (Don't glue it up the sides.)
Put the alligator jaw clips one to each can. Now put the can bottoms together and hold them in one hand. Mark the TA (1) — meaning one hand (such as 3.75 (1)). Now take the cans one in each hand and mark the TA (2) — meaning two hands (such as 3.0
Audit with them in one hand. Keep your worksheet with (1) marks (such as 3.5 (1)). Check at start and middle and end by taking a can in each hand and putting down the 2 can read (such as 2.5 (2)).
It is too much trouble to totally change cans and the distraction can change the TA read.
This two small can arrangement is not quite accurate. It gives a lower TA than big cans. But the difference is slight. It can scare you with a 1.9 when trim is 2.0 and real TA is 2.0. If this happens check with big cans.
(As an added tip a solo auditor usually keeps the back of his hand on his leg while solo auditing. The small 7½ volt current gives a tingle to the leg that is distracting when one's hand is moist. Put a piece of foam rubber in a plastic sack. Lay the sack on the leg, put your hand on this pad. It insulates the area and is very comfortable.)
When a pc's hands sweat a lot you will get a low TA.
Contrary to 19th Century superstition the meter does not work on sweat. Very sweaty hands as found on nervous persons give a false TA. It goes low.
Many "low TA cases" are just sweaty hand cases.
Paper handkerchiefs (Kleenex) are a standard item for an auditing room — for grief charges and burning eyes, etc. These should be available.
If the TA is low, check if the pc's hands are wet. If so, have him wipe them and get a new read. It is usually found that the 1.6 was really 2.0. Or the 1.6 was really 1.8 and the trim was 1.8 = 2.0.
Have the pc wipe hands, check and correct trim before you by-pass all a "low TA's" F/Ns!
TAs can go low. Invalidation of the pc, lousy TRs can drive one low. If so the TA comes back up on repair.
But don't brand a case a low TA case until you make sure his hands are dried and the meter trimmed.
Also, very small cans or cans too small for the pc can give a slightly low reading.
Some pcs have extremely dry hands, usually from industrial chemicals such as chlorine in dishwater or skin scale.
This can give a wildly high TA.
The pc can be worried to death with high TA repairs when in fact he just doesn't have contact with the electrode.
Metal foot plates connected to the meter and the pc barefooted in session will usually handle.
A quick test is have the pc put the cans under his armpits and you'll see if it's his calloused or chemically dried-out hands.
A rare pc is so crippled with arthritis that he doesn't make contact fully with the cans.
This gives a high TA.
Use foot plates or wide wrist straps and you'll get a right read.
Sometimes a rare pc lets his hands go slack on the cans, particularly if they are the wrong size cans, too big.
This gives a mysterious "high TA". It is false. The TA will come down only to 3.2 and F/N and of course an overrun then really gives a high TA. And the pc goes a bit frantic and begins to believe things don't erase or release.
Keep the pc's hands in sight. Check the pc's grip. Get smaller cans.
The most common fault is wrong can size.
For a normal or large-handed pc the can size is about 4 7/8 inches by 2 5/8 inches or 12½ cm by 7 cm. This can be altered as big as 4½ inches by 3 inches diameter or 11 cm by 8 cm. This is Standard.
This can is too large for people with small hands. These should use a can 3¾ inches by 2 1/8 inches or 9 cm by 5 cm diameter or thereabouts.
A small child would be lost even with that can. So a small 35 mm film can could be used. This is 2 inches long by 1 3/16 inches diameter or 5 cm by 3 cm. This works but watch it as these cans are aluminum. They do work but test for true read with a slightly larger can and then trim to adjust for the aluminum if any different.
Cans of course should be steel with a thin tin plating. Regular soup cans.
Can size to match the pc avoids slack can grip or tiring the hands into going slack, giving the auditor 3.2 F/Ns and trouble.
A pc who is too cold sometimes has a falsely high TA.
Wrap him in a blanket or get a warmer auditing room.
The auditing environment is the responsibility of the auditor.
Between 2 and 3 AM or late at night a pc's TA may be very high. The time depends on when he sleeps usually.
This TA will be found normal in regular hours.
Rings on the pc's hands must always be removed. They don't influence TA but they give a false Rockslam.
Many an auditor before now has gone a bit mad trying to handle a floating TA. They are not very common and are startling.
What happens is the pc is so released the needle can't be gotten onto the dial. The needle is swinging wider than the meter dial both ways from center and appears to lay first on one side then the other. The TA can't be moved fast enough to keep the extreme floating needle on the dial.
This gives a false TA of sorts as it can't be read.
Some auditors seeing it for the first time have even sent the pc out of the room so they could "adjust" the meter or get another one!
Thus the very highest state of release can be invalidated as where is the TA?
You'd think soup was very expensive the way some auditors hold onto old cans.
Corroded cans can falsify TA. Get new ones now and then.
And then there was the vain lady who wore shoes too small for her feet.
She removed them every session. The session went well each time.
Then she put on her agonizing shoes and went to the Examiner and the C/Ses and auditors all went mad trying to find out why every Exam had a high TA.
The E-Meter is accurate. It is a lovely instrument.
You have to fit the pc to it.